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Image - Deed Image - Deed Image - Deed
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Halton Region Heritage Services
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Nom de l'objet : Deed
Titre : Province of Upper Canada
Catégorie de l'objet : Communication Artifact
Discipline : Local History
Numéro de catalogue : 1989.4.1
Date absolue : February 15, 1809
Description : Land Grant with intact wax seal, Nelson Township, 1809. Document printed and written on parchment with a round seal attached by cloth. Seal is made of wax and covered with paper.

Following the United States War of Independence, King George III of England decreed that the head of each United Empire Loyalist family and their sons should be granted land. Fearing the growing United States, Britain desired to encourage settlement and compensate those who had defended the Crown. Phillip Killman, son of Niagara Loyalist Jacob Killman, was granted land in Nelson Township in the County of York in the Home District of Upper Canada. This land grant was in the area that now comprises the City of Burlington.

Dimensions: parchment - 62 cm. long, 58 cm. wide, seal - 11.5 cm. diameter.

Written on the parchment is: "Province of Upper Canada George the Third, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith.... To all to whom thefe Prefents fhall come....Greetings. Know Ye, that we of Our fpecial grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion have Given and Granted, an by thefe Prefents do Give and Grant unto Phillip Killman of the Township of Stamford in the County of Lincoln in the District of Niagara, Yeoman son of Jacob Killman all to ...U.E. Loyalist /his heirs and affigns forever: All that parcel or tract of land fituate in the Township of Nelson in the County of York in the Home District in our faid Province, containing by admeafure rent Two Hundred acres Five in the First concefsion North of Dundas Street, in the said Township of Nelson. Commencing in the front of the said concefsion at the Easterly Angle of the said Lot, Then North Forty five degrees West one hundred chains more or less to the allowance for Road in the rear of the said Concefsion: Then South Thirty Eight Degrees West Twenty Chains more or less to the allowance for the Road between Lots Number Five and Six, Then South Forty five Degrees East one hundred chains more or less to the allowance of the Road in front of the Said concefsion. The north Thirty Eight Degrees East Twenty chains more or less to the place of beginning" "Twenty Eight acres and fouor sevenths to be in Lot Number Nineteen in the Second Concefsion North of Dundas Street in the said township of Nelson." Printed text includes "Given under the Great Seal of our Province of Upper Canada: Witness Our trufty and well beloved Francis Gore Esquire our Lieutenant Governor of our said Province. Fourteenth day of Feb.... in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and Nine Command of his Excellency in Council.....Entered with the Auditor 15 February 1809...Signed .... Selby, Auditor General" Above texts are exerpts from the document.

Wax Seal is imprinted with an anchor, crown and sword.
Commentaires : Parchment has been known from second century BC. Animal skin is cleaned, washed, and de-haired. Then it is "limed" or soaked for a week in a limewater solution. Subsequent to this it is scraped and cleaned again. The damp skin is then stretched out on a frame and undergoes alternating cycles of wetting and drying while under tension. It is worked on the flesh side with a blunt knife and finished by rubbing pumice or sandstone into it. Then it is rubbed with whiting or chalk to degrease it and smoothed with an agate or pebble. Lastly it is washed with a weak oxgall solution in order to make the inks and paints adhere to the surface.

After it is dried and smoothed one final time the parchment is ready for use. Parchment is tough, stiff, inelastic and very sensitive to water and heat, cockling when exposed to either. Alkaline in nature, it varies from an opaque white colour to a translucent yellow colour.

Parchment can be made from calf, sheep or goat skins. Young animals yield the finest product. Parchment is prone to insect infestations and sensitive to dryness. Dryness causes embrittlement. High humidity results in mould growth. Ideally parchment should be kept at 45 to 55% humidity and 60 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Rapid changes cause warping and flaking. Excessive wetness will result in rotting, staining, blurring of inks, and mildewing. Bacteria growth will attract insects such as moths and beetles, as well as vermin such as rats and mice.

Sulphurous gases produced by the burning of fuels in industrial areas and cities cause parchment to rot. Sulphur dioxide causes bleaching and tendering while hydrogen sulphide will cause blackening. Sulphur dioxide is present in urban air. Dust and soot will cause staining. Parchment needs to be protected from ammonia (sources - paints, rubber cement, industrial processes), dust/ash (sources - industrial processing, cigarette smoking, unsealed concrete block, brick or stone, heating/ventilation systems), nitrogen oxides (sources - industrial processes, automobile exhaust), organic acids (sources -adhesives, unsealed wood, cardboard), ozone (sources - electrostatic air cleaners, sea spray, automobile exhaust) soot/tars (sources - fireplace, cigarette smoke, industrial processes) and sulphur (sources - industrial processes such as pulp and paper making and oil refining, automobile exhaust, plastisene, natural gas combustion furnaces and rubber products. Skin is among the most sensitive of organic materials.
Établissement : Halton Region Heritage Services
Ville de l'établissement : Milton
Province de l'établissement : Ontario
Site web de l'établissement : 

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